Autophagy is a degradative pathway required to maintain homeostasis. Neuronal autophagosomes form constitutively at the axon terminal and mature via lysosomal fusion during dynein-mediated transport to the soma. How the dynein–autophagosome interaction is regulated is unknown. Here, we identify multiple dynein effectors on autophagosomes as they transit along the axons of primary neurons. In the distal axon, JIP1 initiates autophagosomal transport. Autophagosomes in the mid-axon require HAP1 and Huntingtin. We find that HAP1 is a dynein activator, binding the dynein–dynactin complex via canonical and noncanonical interactions. JIP3 is on most axonal autophagosomes, but specifically regulates the transport of mature autolysosomes. Inhibiting autophagosomal transport disrupts maturation, and inhibiting autophagosomal maturation perturbs the association and function of dynein effectors; thus, maturation and transport are tightly linked. These results reveal a novel maturation-based dynein effector handoff on neuronal autophagosomes that is key to motility, cargo degradation, and the maintenance of axonal health.

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