Activation of inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important innate immune response. Here we investigated the contribution of caspases to the LPS-mediated inflammatory response and discovered distinctive temporal roles of RIPK1 in mediating proinflammatory cytokine production when caspases are inhibited. We propose a biphasic model that differentiates the role of RIPK1 in early versus late phase. The early production of proinflammation cytokines stimulated by LPS with caspase inhibition is mediated by the NF-κB pathway that requires the scaffold function of RIPK1 but is kinase independent. Autocrine production of TNFα in the late phase promotes the formation of a novel TNFR1-associated complex with activated RIPK1, FADD, caspase-8, and key mediators of NF-κB signaling. The production of proinflammatory cytokines in the late phase can be blocked by RIPK1 kinase inhibitor Nec-1s. Our study demonstrates a mechanism by which the activation of RIPK1 promotes its own scaffold function to regulate the NF-κB–mediated proinflammatory cytokine production that is negatively regulated by caspases to restrain inflammatory signaling.

This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms/). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 4.0 International license, as described at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/).
You do not currently have access to this content.