Peroxisomes play a central role in human health and have biochemical properties that promote their use in many biotechnology settings. With a primary role in lipid metabolism, peroxisomes share a niche with lipid droplets within the endomembrane-secretory system. Notably, factors in the ER required for the biogenesis of peroxisomes also impact the formation of lipid droplets. The dynamic interface between peroxisomes and lipid droplets, and also between these organelles and the ER and mitochondria, controls their metabolic flux and their dynamics. Here, we review our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis to propose and reframe models for understanding how peroxisomes are formed in cells. To more fully understand the roles of peroxisomes and to take advantage of their many properties that may prove useful in novel therapeutics or biotechnology applications, we recast mechanisms controlling peroxisome biogenesis in a framework that integrates inference from these models with experimental data.

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