Anaphase chromosome movement is thought to be mediated by pulling forces generated by end-on attachment of microtubules to the outer face of kinetochores. However, it has been suggested that during C. elegans female meiosis, anaphase is mediated by a kinetochore-independent pushing mechanism with microtubules only attached to the inner face of segregating chromosomes. We found that the kinetochore proteins KNL-1 and KNL-3 are required for preanaphase chromosome stretching, suggesting a role in pulling forces. In the absence of KNL-1,3, pairs of homologous chromosomes did not separate and did not move toward a spindle pole. Instead, each homolog pair moved together with the same spindle pole during anaphase B spindle elongation. Two masses of chromatin thus ended up at opposite spindle poles, giving the appearance of successful anaphase.
Evidence for anaphase pulling forces during C. elegans meiosis
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Brennan M. Danlasky, Michelle T. Panzica, Karen P. McNally, Elizabeth Vargas, Cynthia Bailey, Wenzhe Li, Ting Gong, Elizabeth S. Fishman, Xueer Jiang, Francis J. McNally; Evidence for anaphase pulling forces during C. elegans meiosis. J Cell Biol 7 December 2020; 219 (12): e202005179. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202005179
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